晴時多雲

漫遊藝術史》關於晚清的影像敘事:立體照與利卡爾頓的中國舊影(下)

相比19世紀中期入中的西洋攝影師們,利卡爾頓的照片對庶民情狀投注更多關注。即使如此,閱讀攝影師的文字後仍不難發現,那股看似悲天憫人的情懷,實際上嫁接於西方優越論和獵奇的語調中。老中國在外來者眼中是陳舊的、不體面的,卻也處處新奇。

張維晏

位於京城中軸線上的前門大街是北京核心商業區,北起正陽門(又稱前門),南至天橋路口,舊稱「正陽門大街」,1965年後才正式定名為「前門大街」。這條繁華市街,座落各式攤販,許多老字號商行立業甚久。從一條大街可窺見許多民生與世故,老中國百姓們的食衣住行都體現於此。利卡爾頓身處高處,拍下了《前門大街上熱鬧的市場,位於前門和永定門之間》(Busy markets in Chinese (southern) Peking – on Kaiser Street, between South Gate and Chien-men Gate, China)【圖1】,前景中有不少百姓仰頭望向攝影機。利卡爾頓回憶道:

我們眼前的景像是繁忙街道的典型景觀。充斥著交易,毫無一點娛樂消遣之味;這裡有賣各種稀奇古怪且遠超出西方廚師理解的食品攤位。街上似乎有個露天餐廳;有木桶、鍋碗瓢盆、盛米的籃子、盛水果的器皿,我還認出那些水果是一種很好的大柿子。我看見烘焙師和一些桌上的麵粉;若用的是米粉,通常會有多種用途。這裡的人都顯得邋遢,衣衫襤褸,他們本來即是如此;他們都是下層階級——沒洗過澡且蓬頭垢面的一幫人。你可能會注意到他們身著溫暖的衣服,外裹絎縫大衣,而且都穿著鞋子和長襪。1

中國各地人民的相貌有著令人失望的相似之處;據說北方人更高大強壯,我卻認為他們處於平均水平;但差異並不明顯。在南方和北方看到的人群中,我幾乎不認為你有注意到很大的區別。也許你會說北方下層階級人士的膚色似乎更黑,而我想是的。2

【圖1】利卡爾頓,《前門大街上熱鬧的市場,位於前門和永定門之間》,1900年,立體照,美國國會圖書館藏。

相比19世紀中期入中的西洋攝影師們,利卡爾頓的照片對庶民情狀投注更多關注。即使如此,閱讀攝影師的文字後仍不難發現,那股看似悲天憫人的情懷,實際上嫁接於西方優越論和獵奇的語調中。老中國在外來者眼中是陳舊的、不體面的,卻也處處新奇。

上篇提到19世紀末期立體鏡(Stereoscope)與立體照(Stereograph)的發展,本篇將聚焦在利卡爾頓的中國舊影。其中,最耐人尋味之處是:身處世紀之交詭譎多變的大時代下,訪中的西洋攝影師是如何透過鏡頭,訴說他所親歷的東方見聞?

利卡爾頓的中國照片主要收錄在他的《立體照片裡的中國: 義和團運動時期的龍帝國之旅》(China Through the Stereoscope: A Journey Through the Dragon Empire at the Time of the Boxer Uprising, 1901),由知名的「Underwood & Underwood」所出版。「Underwood & Underwood」早期經營立體照和其他攝影圖像的製造、發行及經銷。該公司最初由埃爾默.安德伍德(Elmer Underwood, 1859-1947)和伯特.安德伍德(Bert Underwood, 1862-1943)兩兄弟,在1882年成立於美國堪薩斯州渥太華。隨著產業擴張,他們的生意也搬到了紐約市,並在歐洲及加拿大皆擁有辦事處,曾是世界上最大的立體影像出版商。1904年出版的《立體鏡下的美國》(The United States of America through the Stereoscope)提到:

立體照或立體相片不僅僅是「小圖片」。當手持立體相片並用肉眼觀察時,對於沒有經驗的觀察者來說,它就只是像一對相仿的照片般,並排裱在一張卡紙上。事實上這兩張並不相同——底片是在同一時刻拍攝的,但使用了兩個不同鏡頭,在相機中並排放置,距離約有一成人雙眼那般寬。3

19世紀末,除了大量興起的旅遊攝影師,旅遊文學、旅遊手冊(指南)、明信片、觀光相冊、照片集等出版隨之繼起,圖片交易存在必要需求,一些出版商會派駐攝影師出國遠赴當地,又或攝影師回國後將圖片賣予不同出版公司。

《立體照片裡的中國》本身就是「一套」商品。它包含了利卡爾頓的遊記、100幀立體照片、8張地圖(1張東西半球世界地圖、7張中國地圖)、1架立體鏡和老霍姆斯的立體鏡指南。讀者可透過文字、圖像、立體鏡的親身體驗,以及地圖的路線與方位指引,全面性地了解中國,建構他們的中國印象和認知。利卡爾頓在書中指出:

先前的旅行中,我用自然之眼親見了中國;在這趟旅程規劃下,可以說我們將運用我們的立體眼睛去看;並在使用了這兩種視覺媒介之後,我想向那些還不熟悉立體照片真實感的人聲明,它在腦中產生生動和長久印象的能力幾乎不亞於一個人的自然視覺;它在尺寸、比例、距離和視角方面皆提供了準確性;除此之外,對於產生愉悅官能、固定住所有的印象,並傳達其中的精神,它提供了一種幾乎等同於現實的生動迷人效果。4

他邀請讀者(觀者)們參與這一年的中國旅程,並強調「眼見為憑」(to see is to know)的重要性,透過觀賞立體照片解放視覺感官,從而獲得更「接近真實」的景觀。

【圖2】利卡爾頓,《典型的沒有減震、沒有座位的中國馬車,遠處是景山和皇城》,1901年,立體照,美國國會圖書館藏。

【圖3】利卡爾頓,《天津的獨輪車運輸工具,中國碼頭最好且最實惠的承運人》,1901年,立體照,美國國會圖書館藏。

戰地與異域居民豐富的人文景觀,提供西洋攝影師源源不絕的題材。從而有了像是《典型的沒有減震、沒有座位的中國馬車,遠處是景山和皇城》(Typical springless, seatless Chinese coach, looking toward Coal Mountain and Imperial City, Peking, China)【圖2】、《天津的獨輪車運輸工具,中國碼頭最好且最實惠的承運人》(Wheelbarrow transportation – China’s best and cheapest freighters – at the boat landing, Tientsin)【圖3】等攝影作。值得一提的是,攝影師鏡頭下的庶民生活非出自人文關懷,更多是帶著與自身西方文明對照下,稀釋過的驕傲感。談論到中國馬車時,他說:

幾乎沒有一部關於中國的插圖著作不描繪這種著名的北京車輛。它因其負面和糟糕透頂的品質而享譽世界;沒有什麼比一輛北京車更能說明中國人頭腦的遲鈍和不知變通。它的演變跨越了數千年,但它陳舊的原始機能對旅行者所造成的折磨是無從想像的。5

利卡爾頓想去西山參觀頤和園,但該行必須搭乘馬車。不料,馬車一路顛簸,差點損壞了攝影儀器;他極為擔憂相機和底片,強大恐懼和不適感夾雜惱怒,無怪乎在書中懟了中國馬車足足一大個段落:「中國人設計了許多獨特的酷刑方式,但沒有一個比此種殺人馬車達成目的的手段來得成功。」6

獨輪車的照片中,苦力們有的光著膀子,有的披著簡單衣衫,人人臉上都掩不住那為生計所迫的無奈;中景有兩位穿著體面的西方人士,直挺地站在獨輪車上。那副模樣,就像上演著殖民者奴役勞動人民的情景。照片中,獨輪車插著日本旗,輪軸前頭也掛了面小旗幟,當時天津的獨輪車被各國大量徵用以運送軍備物資。

【圖4】利卡爾頓,《在天津炮擊期間,逃難的中國教民被神父聚集在紫竹林教堂》,1901年,立體照,美國國會圖書館藏。

利卡爾頓的老中國影像最為珍貴者,要屬關於義和團事件的紀錄了。義和團勢力擴及北京與天津一帶,攝影師進行拍攝時,衝突已如火如荼。拍攝《在天津炮擊期間,逃難的中國教民被神父聚集在紫竹林教堂》(Chinese Christian refugees gathered by Father Quilloux into the Apostolic Mission during bombardment of Tientsin, China)【圖4】時,場面一度凶險。紫竹林教堂位於英法租界的邊界地帶,是一間法國天主教會,由劉克明(Claude Marie Guilloux)神父主掌:

到天津後不久,我遇到了這位可敬的神父,他告訴我,他在他的教堂和其他教堂建築的地下室與地窖裡,庇護和撫養了極大群難民。我向他表達希望能拍攝這次風波中眾多受監護者的立體照片。他說如果我第二天能來,他會盡其所能引導他那些害怕的群眾離開地窖,到院子裡呆幾分鐘,但我必須準備好迅速行動,不能讓他們太長時間暴露在爆炸的砲彈。7

然而第二日拍攝時,就在他們剛集合的瞬間,一顆砲彈就在頭頂上爆裂,一道近乎雷電的撞擊聲響徹雲霄,群眾開始哆嗦、不耐煩。利卡爾頓的拍攝工作被迫在極短時間內完成,難民們害怕和憂慮的神情全然體現在照片中。

【圖5】利卡爾頓,《中國的滋事份子─美軍第6騎兵隊捕獲送來的義和團囚犯─中國天津》,1900年,立體照,美國國會圖書館藏。

談到義和團成員的形象,這張《一群中國的麻煩製造者,被美軍第6騎兵隊捉獲的義和團民》(Some of China’s trouble-makers – “Boxer" prisoners captured and brought in by 6th U.S. Cavalry, Tientsin, China)【圖5】的攝影堪稱經典。他們是美國第六騎兵團捕獲的約50名俘虜,圖片背景後方的站者即騎兵團成員:

這些俘虜是否都是義和團成員,似乎存在著一些不確定性。每遇被擒的危機時,義和團團民就會脫下團服,換上普通苦力或農民裝束以掩飾身分;因此,從普通苦力中辨識出變換形態的義和團員並不總是那麼容易。騎兵團的男孩們說他們知道哪個是真正的團員,因為他曾攜帶武器;與此同時,一名騎兵揪著這個「真」拳民的辮子,並將他拖到前面正如你看到的靠近鏡頭的地方,口裡嚷著:「單看他那十足的斜眼便知他是個嗜殺的戰士!」8

【圖6】利卡爾頓,《身、心、靈的訓練,啞鈴運動中的中國孩子,上海南門長老會教會學校》,約1901年,立體照,美國國會圖書館藏,The Library of Congress。

19世紀末,西方霸權在東方強取豪奪。處在世紀之交的時代氛圍,所有關於「強大(西方)與弱小(東方)」、「進步(西方)與落後(東方)」、「高尚(西方)與粗鄙(東方)」等二分史觀與世界觀,根深柢固地焊接在歐美白人的種族優越感和殖民意念上。無論是成功掃蕩義和團之亂、救助受難的中國民眾,都被合理化地視為西洋文明扶弱濟貧的「義舉」。攝影師拍下了《身、心、靈的訓練,啞鈴運動中的中國孩子,上海南門長老會教會學校》(Training of body, mind and soul – Chinese children at dumb-bell exercise, So. Gate Presbyterian Mission School, Shanghai)這樣一張照片【圖6】:「小姑娘在前,大姑娘在後;她們都熱切地、熱情地進行著練習,看起來如同西方女孩般解放了她們自身。」 運動及體育訓練對應著美好生活與健康,在教會中成長的中國女孩乖巧地對著鏡頭舉起啞鈴,彷彿宣示這些未來中國的好苗子都是吸收自西洋文化的營養。

【圖7】利卡爾頓,《由香港寶雲道眺望海灣對岸的九龍和大陸》,1901年,立體照,美國國會圖書館藏。

說利卡爾頓的攝影只是純然的紀錄而不帶著詩意,是不可能的。舉《在香港寶雲道隔維多利亞灣》(Looking across the bay to Kowloon and mainland, from Bowen Road, above Hong Kong)【圖7】為例,前景留著辮子的中國男孩親撫著樹幹,背對鏡頭俯瞰遼闊海灣,眼前的一切風景(建築、軍艦等)都是屬於西方的。利卡爾頓表示:

我的這位本地男孩也在瀏覽全景時自個兒挑了棵松樹靠著。我現在不記得他的背影姿態是出於選擇還是出於必要,因為當有時巨額金錢無法誘使下層階級人士面對可怕的邪惡工具時,或可藉此誘使他們背對鏡頭,這是由於他們相信當他們的臉被拍攝到時,他們的一部分魂魄將永遠消失,這在他們的祖先信仰中形成一件嚴肅的事情。10

1960年代關於中國的攝影逐漸被重視,儘管有大量老照片傳世,但學界對利卡爾頓卻仍存有許多未知。學者Christopher J. Lucas在編篡其攝影作時,曾評價其作「與藝術本身相比,更接近於流行新聞攝影的類型」11 ;儘管如此,Lucas說:「利卡爾頓的風格是明確無誤的,他著眼於構圖和細節,使他的圖像遠超平凡。」12 因此就美學上而言,其照片如同「紀錄性的報導文學」(documentary reportage)。

一位曾見證帝國衰敗面貌的西方攝影師,透過他的照片讓今人得以回望那些史書上難以詳載的歷程;進行影像相關研究時,如何不耽於頌揚老照片的珍貴性,而是從時代產物的角度來解析,或許才是更接近所謂的「真實」吧!利卡爾頓無論在東西方攝影史都足具標誌性,他是否作為一位「建構中國攝影史」的必要人物,仍有待定論,但其攝影作無可質疑地成為中國攝影史長河中的必要內容。

1. “The scene before us is typical of this busy street. It is all trade and no recreation; there are stands for the sale of all sorts of queer comestibles quite beyond the comprehension of Western cooks. It seems to be an out-door restaurant along the entire street; there are buckets, tubs, pots and pans, baskets containing rice, vessels containing fruit which I recognize to be a fine large species of the persimmon. I see bakers and what appears to be flour on some tables; if flour it is rice flour, which is in general use for many purposes. The people here all appear dirty and ragged, and so they are; they are all of the lower class — the unwashed and unkempt horde. You may notice they are clad in warm garments, in quilted coats, and all wearing shoes and stockings. …” In James Ricalton, China Through the Stereoscope: A Journey Through the Dragon Empire at the Time of the Boxer Uprising (New York & London: Underwood & Underwood, 1901), p. 287.

2. “There is a disappointing similarity in the appearance of the people in all parts of China; they are said to be much larger and stronger in the north, and I presume they are in the average; but the difference is not very marked. In the groups we have seen in the south and in the north I scarcely think you have noticed a great difference; probably you will say that they seem darker in complexion among the lower classes in the north, and I think they are.” In James Ricalton, China Through the Stereoscope, p. 288.

3. “Stereoscopic photographs or stereographs are not just “little pictures." When a stereograph is held in the hand and looked at with the unaided eye it seems to the inexperienced observer like a pair of photographs just alike, mounted side by side on one card. The fact is that the two parts are not alike — the negatives were taken at the same instant, but with two different lenses, set side by side in the camera about as far apart as a man’s two eyes.” In Underwood & Underwood, The United States of America through the Stereoscope (New York, Ottawa: Underwood & Underwood, 1904), p. 10.

4. “In previous journeys I have seen China with my natural eyes; during this itinerary we shall see, so to speak, with our stereoscopic eyes; and having used both these media of sightseeing, I wish to state to those not already familiar with the genuine realism of the stereograph, that its power to produce vivid and permanent impressions on the mind is scarcely less than that of one’s natural vision; that it gives accuracy in size, proportion, distance and perspective; and, besides these things, it gives a vivid and fascinating effect that almost equals reality in producing pleasurable sensations and in giving a sort of mental emphasis which fixes all impressions.” In James Ricalton, China Through the Stereoscope, p. 11.

5. “There is scarcely an illustrated work on China which does not give a picture of this celebrated Pekinese vehicle. It is entitled to a world-wide celebrity for its negative and infernal qualities; there is nothing which shows the sluggish inaptitude and inadaptability of the Chinese mind better than a Pekinese cart. Its evolution covers millenniums, and yet its unaltered primordial capacity for inflicting torture on the traveller cannot be imagined.” In James Ricalton, China Through the Stereoscope, p. 311.

6. “The Chinese have devised many unique modes of torture, but none of them show so successful an application of means to an end as this homicidal cart.” In James Ricalton, China Through the Stereoscope, p. 313.

7. “Soon after my arrival in Tien-tsin I met this worthy father, who told me how large a flock he was sheltering and feeding in the basements and cellars of his church and other church buildings. I expressed a desire to obtain a stereograph of his multitudinous wards during such a crisis. He said if I would come on the following day, he would do what he could to induce his terrified flock to leave the cellars and come out into the court for a few minutes, but I must be in readiness to operate quickly and not expose them too long to the bursting shells.” In James Ricalton, China Through the Stereoscope, p. 201.

8. “There seemed to be some uncertainty as to whether all of these captives were Boxers. Boxers often doff their distinctive uniform for the ordinary coolie’s or peasant’s garb when about to be captured; so that it is not always easy to know a metamorphosed Boxer from a common coolie. The boys said they knew one was a genuine Boxer because he carried a weapon; at the same time one of the cavalrymen grabbed the “real thin” by the pigtail and tugged him into the foreground and placed him near the camera as you see, saying at the same time: “You can tell by his bloomin’ squint that he’s a bloody warrior.”” In James Ricalton, China Through the Stereoscope, p. 237.

9. “The little girls are placed in front, the larger ones in the rear; they all engage in the exercises with eagerness and animation and acquit themselves seemingly as well as Western girls could do.” In James Ricalton, China Through the Stereoscope, p. 107.

10. “My native boy supports himself against one as he also scans the panorama. I do not now remember whether his back presentation was from choice or necessity, because sometimes the lower classes can be induced to present their backs to the camera when vast sums of money would not induce them to face that dire instrument of evil, believing that when their faces are photographed a part of their identity is forever lost to them, and this becomes a serious matter in their ancestral worship.” In James Ricalton, China Through the Stereoscope, p. 27.

11. “…more nearly belongs to the genre of popular photojournalism than art as such….” In Christopher J. Lucas ed. James Ricalton’s Photographs of China During the Boxer Rebellion: His Illustrated Travelogue of 1900 (Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen Press, 1990), Preface.

12.  “Ricalton’s style is unmistakable, done with an eye to composition and detail setting his images far above the commonplace.” In Christopher J. Lucas ed. James Ricalton’s Photographs of China During the Boxer Rebellion: His Illustrated Travelogue of 1900, Preface.

參考資料

1. 郭傑偉(Jeffrey W. Cody)、范德珍(Frances Terpak)編著;葉娃譯,《丹青和影像:早期中國攝影》,香港:香港大學,2012。

2. 南無哀,《東方照相記:近代以來西方重要攝影家在中國》,香港:香港中和,2017。

3. 〔美〕詹姆斯.利卡爾頓(James Ricalton);徐文宇譯,《1900,美國攝影師的中國照片日記》,福建:福建教育,2008。

4. Christopher J. Lucas. James Ricalton’s Photographs of China During the Boxer Rebellion: His Illustrated Travelogue of 1900. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen Press, 1990.

5. Charles Wheatstone. “Contributions to the Physiology of Vision. Part the First. On Some Remarkable, and Hitherto Unobserved, Phenomena of Binocular Vision.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 128 (1838), pp. 371-394.

6. James Ricalton. China Throughthe Stereoscope: A Journey Through the Dragon Empire at the Time of the Boxer. New York & London: Underwood & Underwood, 1901.

7. Oliver Wendell Holmes. Soundings from the Atlantic. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1864.

8. Underwood & Underwood. The United States of America through the Stereoscope. New York, Ottawa: Underwood & Underwood, 1904.

本文經授權轉載自漫遊藝術史 關於晚清的影像敘事:立體照與利卡爾頓的中國舊影(下)

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